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Papaver.]                           FLOKA. INDICA.                                   249
sum, oleosum.    Eiribryo parvus, hilum versus albumine inclusus; edty-
ledonibus 1-4, plerumque 2, radicula ab hilo remota centrifuga.
"We commence with. Papaveracea the series of polypetalous Tlialamijtora with
consolidated carpels, parietal placentation, and anthers not adnate with the filament to
that degree that they are in all the previously described families. Its affinities are
not doubtful: they have been alluded to under Nymphaacea and Berberidea, but
are so much more nearly related to the following Orders, Fumariacea, Cru,cifera>
and Capparideee, that they are by some authors included with them into one great
alliance, the Itkceades of Endlicher and Meisuer. Endlicher unites Fumanacece and
Papaveracea into one Order, and Brongniart classes them together as Papaverinetp.
Hypecoum, indeed, amongst Fumariacer, being quite intermediate in structure, is the
connecting link between these Orders, and Platystemon, a Papaveraceous gecus with
free ovaries, is the passage between the two groups of apocarpous and syucarpous
families, more especially showing the affinity of Papaveracea with Nymphceacea on
the one hand, and with Ranunculacea on the other. "With Cntcifera this Order is
allied not only by the structure of the fruit of many species, but by the quaternary
arrangement of the sepals and petals.
Papaveracea are almost entirely natives of the northern hemisphere and of extra-
tropical regions. They are numerous in Northern India, but attain their maximum
in western North America. Their properties arc narcotic, and their seeds usually
yield a bland oil.
Sepala 2, rarius 3, coneava. Petala 4, rarius 6. Stamina indefinita.
Ovarium e carpellis 4 v. pluribus, stigmatibus radiantibus coronatum.
Capsuld placentis parietalibus in cavitatem projectis polysperma, poris
v. valvis brevibus infra stigmata dehiscens.—Herbse succo lacteo, sape
hispid^ radicibus^rasw, i^& plerumque lobatis dentatis%ue> pedunculis
axillaribus solitariis unifloris nudis.
About twelve species of Papaver are kuown, of which all but P. nueUcaule are
confined to the Old World, and almost entirely*to the north temperate zone, one
only being found in Australia, and another in South Africa.
1. P. imdicfrale (Linn. Sp. PL 725); scapo unifloro, flore croceo.
—Elfaut, Monog. Pap-17 5 ^^ 3°** Map. t. 1633; DO. Syst. ii. 71,
JProd, i. 117. P. alpinum, Lim. Sp. PL 7^5; Led. m. Ross. i. 87; DC.
I, c.' P. Pyrenaicum, DC. t, c., et P. microcaipum, DC. I. c. P. auran-
tiacuin, Lois.; DC. Fl. $r. Suppl. 585. P. croceum, Led. M. Alt. ii. 271,
HAB. Hbetia occidentalis alpina: in summis montibus Ladak et
Nubra, alt. 16-17,000 ped.l Afghanistan, 15,000 ped., Griff.!— (Fl.
Aug.) (v. v.)
DISTEIB. Per totam zonam arcticam ad lat. bor. 78°! in alpibna
Korvegifie! Helvetia! Pyrenseis 1 Dahuriae! et Altai! in montibus sco-
pulosis America borealis I
Spithamseum v. pedale. Folia radicalia petiolata, 2-4-pollicaria, Imeari-obovata
v, oblonga, pinnatifida, lobis pauois oblongis acutis utrinq[ue pilosis. Scapi 3-5, gra-
ciles, patentim hispido-pilosi. Floret 1-3 poll diarn. Sepala hirsuta. Filamenta
capillaria. Gapsula late obovata, strigoso-hispida, stigmnte yrofunde inciao.
We have followed Elkan in uniting the P. alpinum, nudtcaute, Pyrcnafam, ero-
ceum and aurantiacum, amongst which we can find no speciEc characters, Our
Tibetan specimens perfectly accord with Arctic American and Siberian ones.